|Authors||Sara C. Hitchman, M.A.Sc., Geoffrey T. Fong, Ph.D., Ron Borland, Ph.D.,Andrew Hyland, Ph.D.|
|Date||January 14, 2010|
|Publication Link||Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 April http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2847075/?tool=pmcentrez&ren=|
|Citation||Hitchman, S. C., Fong, G. T., Borland, R., & Hyland, A. (2010). Predictors of smoking in cars
with nonsmokers: Findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four
Country Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12(4), 374-80. Retrieved July 27, 2010,
This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior.
Respondents included a total of 6,786 current adult smokers from Wave 6 (September 2007–February 2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a random digit-dial telephone survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States.
Reports of smoking in cars with nonsmokers ranged from a low of 29% in Australia and the United Kingdom, to 34% in Canada, and to a high of 44% in the United States. Daily smokers who were from the United States, male, and younger were the most likely to smoke in cars with nonsmokers. Several potentially modifiable factors were also found to be related to this behavior, including smoke-free homes and beliefs about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure to nonsmokers.
A considerable proportion of smokers continue to smoke in cars with nonsmokers across the four countries, particularly in the United States. Public health campaigns should educate smokers about the hazards of cigarette smoke exposure and promote the need for smoke-free cars. These findings provide a foundation of evidence relevant for jurisdictions that are considering banning smoking in cars.
Relapse was associated with lower abstinence self-efficacy and a higher frequency of urges to smoke, but only after the first month or so of quitting. Both these measures mediated relationships between perceived benefits of smoking and relapse. Perceived costs of smoking and benefits of quitting were unrelated to relapse.
Challenging perceived benefits of smoking may be an effective way to increase abstinence self-efficacy and reduce frequency of urges to smoke (particularly after the initial weeks of quitting), in order to reduce subsequent relapse risk.
Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: Findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey
Posted on March 10, 2010, in 4 country, Borland, Ron Papers, Cessation - Research, Fong, Geoffrey papers, Hitchman, S. C. - Paper, Hyland, Andrew Papers, Recent peer reviewed papers, Uncategorized and tagged Australia, Canada, Health, Passive smoking, Smoking ban, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, United States. Bookmark the permalink. Comments Off on Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: Findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey.