|Authors||Giovino, G. A., Sidney, S., Gfroerer, J. C., O’Malley, P. M., Allen, J. A., Richter, P. A. Cummings, K.M.|
|Publication Link||Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Feb;6 Suppl 1:S67-81.
|Citation||Giovino, G. A., Sidney, S., Gfroerer, J. C., O’Malley, P. M., Allen, J. A., Richter, P. A., et al.
(2004). Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6 Suppl 1,
S67-81. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14982710
Approximately one-fourth of all cigarettes sold in the United States are mentholated. An understanding of the consequences, patterns, and correlates of menthol cigarette use can guide the development and implementation of strategies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. This paper summarizes the literature on the health effects of mentholated cigarettes and describes various patterns of use as indicated by consumption and survey data from the United States and other nations. The epidemiological literature on menthol cigarettes and cancer risk is inconclusive regarding whether these cigarettes confer a risk for cancer above that of nonmentholated varieties. Available data indicate that mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous as their nonmentholated counterparts. In addition, because mentholation improves the taste of cigarettes for a substantial segment of the smoking population and appears to mask disease symptoms, this additive may facilitate initiation or inhibit quitting. Menthol market share is high in the Philippines (60%), Cameroon (35%-40%), Hong Kong (26%), the United States (26%), and Singapore (22%). Newport has become the leading menthol brand in the United States. Surveys from four nations indicate that menthol use among adult smokers is more common among females than males. Among U.S. smokers, 68.9% of Blacks, 29.2% of Hispanics, and 22.4% of Whites reported smoking a mentholated variety. Research is needed to better explain factors that may influence menthol preference, such as marketing, risk perceptions, brand formulation, and taste preferences. Such research would guide the development of potentially more effective programs and policies.
Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use